Missionaries as Colonizers

The following is an extended quote from the new book by Adesegun Hammed Olayiwola, “PERSPECTIVES OF THE AFRICAN CHURCH ON AFRICAN MISSIONS: The Past, Present & Future Challenges to Missions In Africa.”  Missionaries during the colonial era struggled with their role of utilizing the advantages of having colonial powers in charge in their mission field without becoming pawns of the colonizers. Some missionaries, however, did not struggle with this as they embraced both roles. There is a lot of disagreement in this area. However, Olayiwola expresses a common African perspective– and perspective is important.

According to Lamin Sanneh, “At its most self-conscious stage, mission coincided with western colonialism, and with that juncture students of the subject have gone on to make all kinds of judgments about the intrinsic bond between the two forces.”i He claimed further that, “In the nineteenth century this idea persisted under the slogan of “Christianity and 6percent,” by which it was understood that mundane interests prospered under a religious guise. Thus mission came to acquire the unsavory odor of collusion with the colonial power.”ii Michael Crowder believed that, “the functional relationship and unity, which existed between missionaries, traders and administrators in colonial Africa, was not accidental. Early missionaries in West Africa had a dual purpose to promote legitimate trade between African and Europeans and to convert Africans to their own religion.”iii

Since missionaries, the traders and even the colonial governors and administrators knew they were British, Spanish, and Portuguese residents in various part of Africa with a common interest to protect. Okon claimed that, “they cooperated and united as vital element in the attainment of their set goals. Missionaries in critical times of need, depended on traders for funds, and relied completely on administrators for physical security and protection.”iv Mbiti even claimed that, “A Gikuyu proverb says that, there is no Roman priest and a European- both are the same!”v Although, there is a no scholarly consensus on the role of the missionaries in the colonization of Africa, Okon insisted that, “the argument seems to favor the view that some missionaries cooperated essentially with colonial authorities in the exploitation and cultural subjugation of Africa.”vi

Walter Rodney in his How Europe Underdeveloped Africa contended that missionaries were agents of imperialism. He claimed that, “The Christian missionaries were as much part of the colonizing forces as were the explorers, traders and soldiers… missionaries were agents of colonialism in the practical sense, whether or not they saw themselves in that light.”vii Okon claimed that, “Rodney accused missionaries of preaching humility and submission in the face of gross injustice, inhumanity and dehumanization. While British traders were exploiting their African customers, the missionaries preached peace, forgiveness and good neighborliness, which actually prevented genuine rebellion, self-preservation and determination. Missionaries worked towards the preservation of the status quo and upholding of the master-servant relationship between Africans and Europeans.”viii

Rodney lamented that, “The church’s role was primarily to preserve the social relations of colonialism… the Christian church stressed humility, docility and acceptance. Ever since the days of slavery in the West Indies, the church had been brought in on condition that it should not excite the African slaves with doctrine of equality before God.”ix Okon claimed that, “If it is correct that missionary sermons suppressed genuine rebellion that could have ushered in freedom for the oppressed, and then the linkage of the missionaries with all the visible evils of colonialism may be justifiable.”x

i Lamin Sanneh, Translating The Message: The Missionary Impact On Culture. (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1989), 88. In Okon, 198.

ii Sanneh, (1989), 88. In Okon, 198.

iii Michael Crowder, The Story Of Nigeria. (London: Faber and Faber, 1962), 111. In Okon, 198-199.

iv Okon, 199.

v Mbiti, 231. In Okon, 199.

vi Okon, 199.

vii Rodney, 277. In Okon, 199.

viii Okon, 199.

ix Rodney, 278. In Okon, 199.

x Okon, 200.

Missions Books I am Looking Forward to Reading

Here are a few books that I am planning to read. They are written by people I know who are involved in missions, and are not as well-known as they should be:

Barry Phillips is a friend of mine and fellow missionary serving here in the Philippines. He enjoys controversy more than I do, but that may be a good thing. Case in point is his newest book, “Church Doctor: Prescriptions for a Healthy Church.” Talking to Barry it is pretty clear that he did not pull punches as to his concerns about “church as usual.” I am looking forward to reading it soon. (Yes, I am aware that “Church Doctor” is not a Missions book in the classic sense, but still looking forward to it.

 

Adesegun Hammed Olayiwola is a former student of mine. He is a dedicated student and researcher of missions. He has finished four books in the last two years. Three of them are now available. (One more I have read, but he hasn’t shared it online yet.) “Perspectives of African Church on African Missions: The Past, Present & Future Challenges to Missions in Africa.” It is presently going through final editing for English, but even as is worth reading because Adesegun has a unique perspective that most of us in the “West” have little exposure to. I am looking forward to reading it soon (and hopefully clean up the language just a bit.)

 

T. Aaron Smith is a missionary in Manila whose parents are actually members of our sending church. He and his wife serve with the urban poor in one of the Great Urban Centers of the world. Since I believe that missions is being drawn (kicking and screaming) from the UPG model of missions to GUC model, I think of Aaron’s work as quite forward-thinking in missions.  Also, while I have ministerial friends who complain that Christian missions has spent too many centuries focused on the poor and ignoring the rich or professional, I still think that if missions looks to Christ as the chief example, then prioritizing the poor is good. I am looking forward to reading his book, “Thriving in the City: A Guide for Sustainable Incarnational Ministry Among the Urban Poor.”

Of course, you are welcome to visit my Amazon Page as well, by CLICKING HERE.